Steel from Solar Energy
The importance of tackling the GHG emissions from the steel sector is obvious as it is responsible for around 4% of the GHG emissions in Europe.
The sector generates around 2,6 million jobs making it an important part of the EU economy, which demands careful consideration about what is the cost-optimal pathway for decarbonisation.
Depending on the system’s energy efficiency, the BF-BOF route usually has a carbon footprint between 1,6 to 2,0 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of crude steel produced, with the EU average being around 1,9 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of steel.
While direct emissions in the H2-DRI-EAF route are reduced almost to zero, the final carbon footprint of this approach would rely on the carbon intensity of electricity used – both for hydrogen production as well as to operate the electric arc furnace
Considering the amount of electricity consumption, for the process to be beneficial from the point of view of net GHG emissions, the maximum carbon intensity of electricity used cannot exceed 513 gCO2 per kWh. This means that careful consideration should be given to the source of electricity used.